A. Subbaraya Chetty, 2002, "Tipu's endowments to Hindus" in Habib. Be their bodies the constant object of their cares (i.e., infest them with diseases), deprive their eyes of sight, make black their faces (i.e., bring shame), destroy in them organs of speech! ", He immediately ordered the Asaf of Bednur to supply the Swami with 200 rahatis (fanams) in cash and other gifts and articles. Many churches in the Malabar and Cochin were damaged. Nevertheless, Tipu Sultan's correspondence with the Ottoman Turkish Empire and particularly its new Sultan Selim III continued till his final battle in the year 1799. Acharya Harinath De, as a tribute to him, created an oil painting of him. In the same year, French Admiral De Suffren ceremonially presented a portrait of Louis XVI to Haidar Ali and sought his alliance.. He [Tipu] was a king of Mysore and fought against the British [as] a freedom fighter. Tipu Sultan had lost his sword in a war with the Nairs of Travancore during the Battle of the Nedumkotta (1789), in which he was forced to withdraw due to the severe joint attack from the Travancore army and British army. , Under Tipu Sultan, Mysore had some of the world's highest real wages and living standards in the late 18th century, higher than Britain, which in turn had the highest living standards in Europe.  The young men who offered resistance were disfigured by cutting their noses, upper lips, and ears. These men were skilled in operating the weapons and were trained to launch their rockets at an angle calculated from the diameter of the cylinder and the distance to the target. Tipu was commonly known as the Tiger of Mysore and adopted this animal as the symbol (bubri/babri) of his rule.  According to Mr. Silva of Gangolim, a survivor of the captivity, if a person who had escaped from Seringapatam was found, the punishment under the orders of Tipu was the cutting off of the ears, nose, the feet and one hand. His religious legacy has become a source of considerable controversy in India, with some groups proclaiming him a great warrior for the faith or Ghazi Christians and even Muslims, for both religious and political reasons. 1 Manchester Square, London. Being illiterate, Hyder was very particular in giving his eldest son a prince's education and a very early exposure to military and political affairs. The previous Congress government’s decision to organise the Jayanti was also seen as the party’s move to pander to the minorities. The idea of a possible Tipu-Napoleon alliance alarmed the British Governor, General Sir Richard Wellesley (also known as Lord Wellesley), so much that he immediately started large scale preparations for a final battle against Tipu Sultan. The coinage of Tipu Sultan is one of most complex and fascinating series struck in India during the 18th century. Each of the names is Persian, though in several examples, the meaning of the names in India was different from the Iranian meaning (not indicated here). Gold: Faruqi "فاروقی" for the pagoda (Umar al-Faruq, the second caliph) -- Sadîqi "صدیقی" for the double-pagoda (Abu Bakr al-Sadiq, the first caliph) -- Ahmadi "احمدی" for the four-pagoda ( "most praised ", one of the name of the Prophet Muhammad).  It was officially celebrated in Karnataka initially by the Minority Welfare department, and later by the Kannada & Culture department. He was deeply interested in literature and had a library. The Lord is predominant over his own works.  During the climactic battle at Srirangapatna in 1799, British shells struck a magazine containing rockets, causing it to explode and send a towering cloud of black smoke with cascades of exploding white light rising up from the battlements. In the Battle of Pollilur, Tipu decisively defeated Baillie. The betrayal by Tipu Sultan's brother in law in working with the British and weakening the walls to make an easy path for the British. Out of 360 Europeans, about 200 were captured alive, and the sepoys, who were about 3800 men, suffered very high casualties.  Regular endowments were made during this period to about 156 Hindu temples, including the famed Ranganathaswami Temple at Srirangapatna.. However, Mir Ghulam Ali’s most notable work was his role as Custodian of Tipu Sultan’s sons, 10 year old Abdul Khaliq and 8 year old Maizzuddin, when they were to be held hostage by the British who mercilessly asked to handover both of them to Lord Cornwallis as a part of a peace treaty in 1792. Tipu Sultan, an 18th-century ... Ingram Bywater, who then bequeathed it to the great-grandson of Robert Bell, Charles Francis Bell, in 1914. " According to a 13 February 1798 report by Talleyrand: "Having occupied and fortified Egypt, we shall send a force of 15,000 men from Suez to India, to join the forces of Tipu-Sahib and drive away the English. Tipu Sultan's great grandson Shahzada Anwar Ali Shah speaks to NewsX on the Tipu birth anniversary controversy and hits out at VHP. Tipu Sultan (born Sultan Fateh Ali Sahab Tipu, 20 November 1750 – 4 May 1799), also known as Tipu Sahab or the Tiger of Mysore, was the ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore based in South India and a pioneer of rocket artillery. MM Publications (2007), Kottayam India, Irfan Habib "War and Peace. He had two brothers both of whom were lawyers and subordinate judges (the highest rank available to Indians under British rule at the time). They were: Copper: Qutb "قطب" for the 1/8 paisa (Persian for the pole star) -- Akhtar "اختر" for the 1/4 paisa (star) -- Bahram "بهرام" for the 1/2 paisa (the planet Mars) -- Zohra "زهره" for the paisa (the planet Venus) -- either Othmani "عثمانی" for the double-paisa (the third caliph of the Rashidun) or Mushtari "مشتری" (the planet Jupiter). Ubaidullah first job was working as an aide to Prince Jalaluddin, the grandson of Tipu Sultan of Mysore, in Kolkata. He reached for the dagger, picked it up, and killed the tiger with it. Conflicts between Mysore (under Tipu) and Marathas: Conflict ended with Treaty of Gajendragad in March 1787, as per which Tipu returned all the territory captured by Hyder Ali to Maratha Empire. Following their disastrous defeat at the 1780 Battle of Pollilur, 7,000 British men along with an unknown number of women were held captive by Tipu in the fortress of Seringapatnam. In the year 1790 he appointed Kamaluddin as his Mir Bahar and established massive dockyards at Jamalabad and Majidabad. The previous year, not a single JD(S) leader, including the then chief minister HD Kumaraswamy, attended the event, turning it into a fiasco. , In 1791 his opponents advanced on all fronts, with the main British force under Cornwallis taking Bangalore and threatening Srirangapatna. Braithwaite's forces, consisting of 100 Europeans, 300 cavalry, 1400 sepoys and 10 field pieces, was the standard size of the colonial armies. ", During his campaigns of clamping down on groups that helped the British, Tipu Sultan targeted several Muslim groups, including the Mappila Muslims of Malabar, the Mahadevi Muslims, and the Nawab of Savanur and Nizam. it states as "On the evening of Deepavali that more than 700 Mandyam Iyengars who congregated at Narasimhaswamy temple on the banks of Cauvery at Srirangapatna town, capital of Tipu Sultan, were killed by Tipu's army on charges of colluding with British while supporting Maharani Lakshmammanni, according to Lakshmi Thatchar, a Sanskrit scholar and a researcher. Once known as a playboy prince … They asked me to apologise for saying the truth. Rockets in Mysore and Britain, 1750–1850 A.D. "Tipu Sultan died a heroic death fighting the British: President Ram Nath Kovind", "The history of South India is relatively unknown: Rajmohan Gandhi", "The Tiger and The Thistle – Tipu Sultan and the Scots in India", "Wellington in India: A Great Commander in Embryo", "Tipu Sultan: Here're lesser known facts about 'Tiger of Mysore, "Tipu, the Citizen-Sultan and the Myth of a Jacobin Club in India", "View of the Hoally Gateway, where Tipu Sultan was killed, Seringapatam (Mysore)", "Over 5,000 'war rockets' of Tipu Sultan unearthed", "How the Mysorean rocket helped Tipu Sultan's military might gain new heights", "How Tipu Sultan was the original tech innovator", Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (Great Britain) 1842, "Deportation & The Konkani Christian Captivity at Srirangapatna (February 24, 1784 Ash Wednesday)", "Deportation & The Konkani Christian Captivity at Srirangapatna (1784 Feb. 24th Ash Wednesday)", "Monti Fest Originated at Farangipet – 240 Years Ago!  He expanded the iron-cased Mysorean rockets and commissioned the military manual Fathul Mujahidin.  However, there were no priests among the captives. He further asserts that the acts of Tipu that were constructive towards Hindus were largely political and ostentatious rather than an indication of genuine tolerance. Tipu Sultan laid the foundation for the construction of the Kannambadi dam (present-day Krishna Raja Sagara or KRS dam) on the Kaveri river, as attested by an extant stone plaque bearing his name, but was unable to begin the construction. The real Tipu: A brief history of Tipu Sultan. In 1874, he was appointed the first superintendent of Dhaka Madrassah. At age 15, he accompanied his father against the British in the First Mysore War in 1766.  Tipu agreed to pay four year arrears of tribute which his father Hyder Ali had agreed to pay to Maratha Empire (4.8 million rupees), The Marathas agreed to address Tipu sultan as "Nabob Tipu Sultan Futteh Ally Khan". Modern Indian literature, an anthology, Volume 2, Sahitya Akademy, Battles involving the Maratha Empire § Conflict with the Kingdom of Mysore, Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley, Captivity of Mangalorean Catholics at Seringapatam, "Tipu Sultan's 216th death anniversary: 7 unknown facts you should know about the Tiger of Mysore : Listicles: Microfacts", "ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDENT OF INDIA, SHRI RAM NATH KOVIND AT THE JOINT SESSION OF KARNATAKA LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY AND LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL ON 60TH ANNIVERSARY OF VIDHAN SOUDHA". Munro was moving south with a separate force to join Baillie, but on hearing the news of the defeat he was forced to retreat to Madras, abandoning his artillery in a water tank at Kanchipuram. Tipu Sultan realised that the British were a new kind of threat in India.  He even had French engineers build a mechanical tiger for his palace. The British administrator Mark Wilks gives it as 70,000, historian Lewis Rice arrives at the figure of 85,000, while Mir Kirmani's score for the Coorg campaign is 80,000 men, women and child prisoners. , The French were allies of Tipu Sultan. ... Saleem III allowed Tipu Sultan to mint his name and recite his name in his Friday sermon. Tipu Sultan expressed his indignation and grief at the news of the raid:, "People who have sinned against such a holy place are sure to suffer the consequences of their misdeeds at no distant date in this Kali age in accordance with the verse: "Hasadbhih kriyate karma rudadbhir-anubhuyate" (People do [evil] deeds smilingly but suffer the consequences crying). He won important victories against the British in the Second Anglo-Mysore War and negotiated the 1784 Treaty of Mangalore with them after his father died from cancer in December 1782 during the Second Anglo-Mysore War. In the ensuing treaty, he was forced to cede half his territories to the allies, and deliver two of his sons as hostages until he paid in full three crores and thirty lakhs rupees fixed as war indemnity to the British for the campaign against him.  The treaty required that Tipu Sultan pay 4.8 million rupees as a one-time war cost to the Marathas, and an annual tribute of 1.2 million rupees in addition to returning all the territory captured by Hyder Ali.. They were thought to be subjected to forcible conversions to Islam, death, and torture. Most of the coconut, arecanut, pepper and cashew plantations held by the Syrian Malabar farmers were also indiscriminately destroyed by the invading army. In 1788, Tipu entered into Malabar to quell a rebellion. These became influential in British rocket development, inspiring the Congreve rocket, which was soon put into use in the Napoleonic Wars. Director Ketan Mehta (who has made biopics on Sardar Patel and Mangal Pandey) was planning a biopic on Noor Inaayat Khan, the daughter Hazrat Inaayat Khan, Tipu Sultan's great grandson… In 2015, the Government of Karnataka, under the leadership of then Chief Minister Siddaramaiah from the Congress party, began to celebrate Tipu's birth anniversary as the "Tipu Sultan Jayanti". Ubaidullah first job was working as an aide to Prince Jalaluddin, the grandson of Tipu Sultan of Mysore, in Kolkata.  On account of the staunch resistance by the Travancore army, Tipu was unable to break through the Tranvancore lines and the Maharajah of Travancore appealed to the East India Company for help. That earned him the name "the Tiger of Mysore".  The Congress regime declared it as an annual event to be celebrated on 20 November. He granted all women the permission to cover their breast, which were not possible earlier by system of Kerala in that era..  Tipu Sultan does seem to have repossessed unauthorised grants of land made to Brahmins and temples, but those which had proper sanads (certificates) were not. One of his wives quite renowned for her beauty and intelligence was Sindh Sahiba whose grandson was Sahib Sindh Sultan also known as His Highness Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Ahmed Halim-az-Zaman Khan Sultan Sahib.  The captivity of Mangalorean Catholics at Seringapatam, which began on 24 February 1784 and ended on 4 May 1799, remains the most disconsolate memory in their history.  It was purchased for £98,500 by a telephone bidder. In 1990, a television series on him, The Sword of Tipu Sultan was directed by Bollywood actor Sanjay Khan based on a historical novel by Bhagwan Gidwani. Francis Buchanan gives the numbers as 70,000 captured, from a population of 80,000, with 10,000 escaping. He earned the title "Nasib-ud-Daula" with the heavy heart of those loyal to Shah Alam II. The sword was on display at the Wallace Collection, No.  On one hand, many sources mention the appointment of Hindu officers in Tipu's administration and his land grants and endowments to Hindu temples, which are cited as evidence for his religious tolerance. ", "President Ram Nath Kovind hails Tipu Sultan, sparks war of words between Congress and BJP", "Pakistan PM Imran pays tribute to Tipu Sultan on his death anniversary", "BBC NEWS – South Asia – Tipu's sword back in Indian hands", "Another Tipu Sultan sword surfaces, to be auctioned", "Tipu Sultan memorabilia goes under hammer at Sotheby's 'The Arts of Imperial India' auction", "BJP govt orders cancellation of Tipu Sultan Jayanti", "Tipu Sultan Birth Anniversary: Life And Works of the 18th Century Ruler", "Karnataka Prepares To Celebrate Tipu Sultan Jayanti, BJP Threatens Stir Karnataka", Illuminated Qurʾān from the library of Tippoo Ṣāḥib, Cambridge University Digital Library, UK Family Finds Tipu Sultan's Gun, Sword In Attic, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tipu_Sultan&oldid=1000611774, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2020, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from January 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2021, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Badshah Nasibuddaulah Sultan Mir Fateh Ali Bahadur Sahab Tipu, Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Abdul Khaliq Khan Sultan (1782 – 12 September 1806), Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Muhi-ud-din Ali Khan Sultan (1782 – 30 September 1811), Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Mu'izz-ud-din Ali Khan Sultan (1783 – 30 March 1818), Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Mi'raj-ud-din Ali Khan Sultan (1784? , Ubaidullah died in Dhaka, Bengal Presidency, British India, on 9 February 1885. They defeated Tipu, and he was killed on 4 May 1799 while defending his fort of Seringapatam. [page needed], Ubaidullah wrote books in Urdu, Arabic, Persian and English and translated many works. In response, Lord Cornwallis mobilised company and British military forces, and formed alliances with the Marathas and the Nizam of Hyderabad to oppose Tipu. Tipu's Tiger, c.1790 (wood) by Indian School, (18th century).  Historian J. From the age of 17 Tipu was given independent charge of important diplomatic and military missions.  Thousands of Kodavas were seized along with the Raja and held captive at Seringapatam.  Mysore's average per-capita income was five times higher than subsistence level, i.e. Tipu Sultan was born on 20 November 1750 (Friday, 20th Dhu al-Hijjah, 1163 AH) at Devanahalli, in present-day Bangalore Rural district, about 33 km (21 mi) north of Bangalore city. He also embarked on an ambitious economic development program that established Mysore as a major economic power, with some of the world's highest real wages and living standards in the late 18th century.. Successive Indian National Congress governments have often celebrated Tipu Sultan's memory and monuments and relics of his rule while the Bharatiya Janata Party has been largely critical. Sharma, H. D. (1991). In an epic sentence Tipu Sultan replied: "It's an excuse and the belief of the people who love to oppress The weaker section of the society, Our tradition and The Kingdom of God's Grace's (Saltanat E Khudadad)'s Legacy is, Whether it may be L Many members of the British East India Company believed that Nawab of Carnatic Umdat Ul-Umra secretly provided assistance to Tipu Sultan during the war and sought his deposition after 1799. ), Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Mu'in-ud-din Ali Khan Sultan (1784? One of his student was Syed Ameer Ali. After which he worked as the Scrivener at the Legislative Council, part of the office of the Viceroy of India. In comparison, the highest national per-capita incomes in 1820 were $1,838 for the Netherlands and $1,706 for Britain. It is a major source of drinking water for the people of Mysore and Bangalore. It was an ancient and sacred palace of the dynasty whose age goes back to the period when the first kings settled in that area. In December 1789 he massed troops at Coimbatore, and on 28 December made an attack on the lines of Travancore, knowing that Travancore was (according to the Treaty of Mangalore) an ally of the British East India Company. He commanded a corps of cavalry in the invasion of Carnatic in 1767 at age 16. He edited Guide (Urdu) and Durbeen (Persian).  During this campaign in September 1780, Tipu Sultan was dispatched by Hyder Ali with 10,000 men and 18 guns to intercept Colonel Baillie who was on his way to join Sir Hector Munro. Earlier in the day, the Congress leader at the national capital said, "I was told in the parliament by BJP that I should apologise for my speech. Colonel Macqulay, the British resident of Travancore also helped them. , In 1779, the British captured the French-controlled port of Mahé, which Tipu had placed under his protection, providing some troops for its defence. ), Thomas, Paul (1954), Christians and Christianity in India and Pakistan: a general survey of the progress of Christianity in India from apostolic times to the present day, Allen & Unwin, p. 235, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPrabhu1999 (, K.M. He sent emissaries to foreign states, including the Ottoman Empire, Afghanistan, and France, in an attempt to rally opposition to the British. Between 1782 and 1799 Tipu Sultan issued 34 "Sanads" (deeds) of endowment to temples in his domain, while also presenting many of them with gifts of silver and gold plate. , Tipu Sultan defeated Colonel Braithwaite at Annagudi near Tanjore on 18 February 1782. Oh Avenger! , Irfan Habib and Mohibbul Hasan argue that these early British authors had a strong vested interest in presenting Tipu Sultan as a tyrant from whom the British had liberated Mysore. This treaty enabled Bussy to move his troops to the Isle de France (now Mauritius). He also tried to improve industry, agriculture and trade". Tipu was also called "Sultan Sayyid walShareef Fateh Ali Khan Tipu " after his grandfather Fath Muhammad. , In a letter to Runmust Khan, Tipu himself stated:, "We proceeded with the utmost speed, and, at once, made prisoners of 40,000 occasion-seeking and sedition-exciting Kodavas, who alarmed at the approach of our victorious army, had slunk into woods, and concealed themselves in lofty mountains, inaccessible even to birds.  A. S. Chetty argues that Wilks' account in particular cannot be trusted. The original copy of the Constitution of India bears a painting of Tipu Sultan. He also distinguished himself in the First … He asserted that Tipu's "religious fanaticism and the excesses committed in the name of religion, both in Mysore and in the provinces, stand condemned for all time. Napoleon Bonaparte, the French commander-in-chief, sought an alliance with Tipu Sultan. After Tipu's defeat in the fourth war the British captured a number of the Mysorean rockets. Shorten their days! ... Shahu grandson of Shivaji Maharaj was a prisoner of Aurangzeb. Hyder Ali appointed able teachers to give Tipu an early education in subjects like Urdu, Persian, Arabic, Kannada, Quran, Islamic jurisprudence, riding, shooting and fencing.  In this last effort he was successful, as the lack of provisions forced Cornwallis to withdraw to Bangalore rather than attempt a siege of Srirangapatna. Nairs were surrounded with offers of death or circumcision. , Like his father before him, Tipu Sultan maintained friendly relations with Mohammad Ali Khan, ruler of the Zand Dynasty in Persia. Tipu Sultan sired 12 sons who were deported to Calcutta by the British and given residence in Tollygunge, then a distant jungle suburb.  The device, known as Tipu's Tiger, is on display in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London. , Tipu Sultan was considered as pioneer of road construction, especially in Malabar, as part of his campaigns, he connected most of the cities by roads. " Soon after the Treaty of Mangalore in 1784, Tipu gained control of Canara. He was also a pioneer in the development and use of Mysore rockets in warfare. During the siege of Mangalore, Tipu's soldiers daily exposed the heads of many innocent Brahmins within sight from the fort for the Zamorin and his Hindu followers to see. ), Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Muhammad Yasin Khan Sultan (1784 – 15 March 1849), Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Muhammad Subhan Khan Sultan (1785 – 27 September 1845), Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Muhammad Shukrullah Khan Sultan (1785 – 25 September 1830), Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Sarwar-ud-din Khan Sultan (1790 – 20 October 1833), Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Muhammad Nizam-ud-din Khan Sultan (1791 – 20 October 1791), Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Muhammad Jamal-ud-din Khan Sultan (1795 – 13 November 1842), Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Munir-ud-din Khan Sultan (1795 – 1 December 1837), Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Ghulam Ahmad Khan Sultan (1796 – 11 April 1824), Shahzada Sayyid walShareef Hashmath Ali Khan Sultan (expired at birth), Tipu's life and adventures were the central theme of a short-running. Both Tipu Sultan and his father used their French-trained army in alliance with the French in their struggle with the British, and in Mysore's struggles with other surrounding powers, against the Marathas, Sira, and rulers of Malabar, Kodagu, Bednore, Carnatic, and Travancore. 111–115.  His son, Hassan Suhrawardy, was a noted politician in British India and his granddaughter, Shaista Suhrawardy Ikramullah, was a notable academic and diplomat of Pakistan. Noted among his works are Grammar of Arabic Language, Urdu Diwan (Urdu poems, 1880), Farsi Dewan (Persian poems, 1886), Dastar-e-Parsi Amuz (Persian grammar), Lubbul Arab (Arabic grammar), Miftahul Adab (Urdu grammar), Dabistan-i-Danish Amuz (Urdu, physics), Dastar-e-Farsi Amuz (Persian, rhythm and rhetorics), Dastan-i-Ibratbar (Persian, autobiography). Tipu Sultan seized all the guns and took the entire detachment prisoner. He then worked on to check the advances of the British by making alliances with the Marathas and the Mughals. Goel & P.C.N. He was also one of the few Indian rulers to have defeated British armies. I think so. These historical creations have been keen observer of the changes the city has faced for all these years. Uneasy calm in Madikeri after Tipu Sultan's anniversary protests “BJP and other Sangh affiliates are playing the politics of religion over Tipu Sultan, which is very dangerous,” warned Shahzada Anwar Ali Shah, great grandson of Tipu Sultan and crown prince. He was a disciple and successor of Shaikh Abdul-Qadir Gilani, and the mosques and shrines over their tombs still survive in Baghdad and are places of pilgrimage to this day. At the beginning of his first year, Tipu Sultan abandoned the Hijri dating system and introduced the Mauludi system (from the Arabic word "walad ", which means "birth "), based on the solar year and the birth year of the Prophet Muhammad (actually 571 AD, but for some perplexing reason reckoned as 572 by Tipu Sultan for his staff). The denomination does not appear on the Hijri dated gold coins, but was added on all the Mauludi dated pieces. , During the storming of Srirangapatna by the British in 1799, thirteen murdered British prisoners were discovered, killed by either having their necks broken or nails driven into their skulls.. In 1767 Maratha Peshwa Madhavrao defeated both Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan and entered Srirangapatna, the capital of Mysore.  The actual number of Kodavas that were captured in the operation is unclear. Furthermore, Tipu Sultan also requested permission from the Ottomans to contribute to the maintenance of the Islamic shrines in Mecca, Medina, Najaf and Karbala. Hassan says that it is difficult to estimate the real number of Kodava captured by Tipu.  According to historian Praxy Fernandes, Tipu Sultan was "an enlightened monarch who followed a secular policy towards his subjects. Regarded as the standard work on education a Mir Yam led 30 admirals and each one of the rockets. 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